Introduction to Environmental Science

0% Complete
0 out of 99 Lessons
0% Complete
0 out of 4 Exams
Previous Lessons
Open Chapter Ch. 1: Science and the Environment
Lesson #1 The State of the Planet
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 1
Lesson #2 Environmental Science and the Environmental Movement
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 2
Lesson #3 3 Unifying Themes - Sustainability, Sound Science and Stewardship
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 3
Lesson #4 Moving Towards a Sustainable Future
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 4
Open Chapter Ch. 2: Economics, Politics, and Public Policy
Lesson #5 Economics and the Environment
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 5
Lesson #6 Resources in a Sustainable Economy
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 6
Lesson #7 Environmental Public Policy
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 7
Lesson #8 Benefit-Cost Analysis of Environmental Public Policy
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 8
Lesson #9 Politics and the Environment
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 9
Open Chapter Ch. 3: Basic Needs of Living Things
Lesson #10 Organisms in Their Environment
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 10
Lesson #11 Environmental Factors
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 11
Lesson #12 Matter in Living and Nonliving Systems
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 12
Lesson #13 Matter and Energy
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 13
Lesson #14 The Cycling of Matter in Ecosystems
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 14
Open Chapter Ch. 4: Populations and Communities
Lesson #15 Dynamics of Natural Populations
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 15
Lesson #16 Limits on Population
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 16
Lesson #17 Community Interactions
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 17
Lesson #18 Evolution as a Force for Change
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 18
Lesson #19 Implications for Human Management
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 19
Open Chapter Ch. 5: Ecosystems: Energy, Patterns, and Disturbance
Lesson #20 Characteristics of Ecosystems
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 20
Lesson #21 The Flow of Energy in Ecosystems
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 21
Lesson #22 From Ecosystems to Global Biomes
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 22
Lesson #23 Ecosystem Responses to Disturbance
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 23
Lesson #24 Human Values and Ecosystem Sustainability
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 24
Open Chapter Ch. 6: Wild Species and Biodiversity
Lesson #25 The Value of Wild Species and Biodiversity
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 25
Lesson #26 Biodiversity and Its Decline
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 26
Lesson #27 Saving Wild Species
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 27
Lesson #28 Protecting Biodiversity Internationally
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 28
Exam Exam 1
Open Chapter Ch. 7: The Value, Use, and Restoration of Ecosystems
Lesson #29 Ecosystem Capital
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 29
Lesson #30 Consumption and Production
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 30
Lesson #31 Biomes and Ecosystems Under Pressure
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 31
Lesson #32 Protection and Restoration
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 32
Open Chapter Ch. 8: The Human Population
Lesson #33 The Human Population
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 33
Lesson #34 Population and Consumption: Different Worlds
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 34
Lesson #35 Consequences of Population Growth and Affluence
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 35
Lesson #36 Projecting Future Populations
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 36
Open Chapter Ch. 9: Population and Development
Lesson #37 Predicting the Demographic Transition
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 37
Lesson #38 Promoting Development
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 38
Lesson #39 A New Direction: Social Modernization
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 39
Open Chapter Ch. 10: Water: Hydrologic Cycle and Human Use
Lesson #40 Water: A Vital Resource
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 40
Lesson #41 Hydrologic Cycle: Natural Cycle, Human Impacts
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 41
Lesson #42 Water: Getting Enough, Controlling Excess
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 42
Lesson #43 Water Stewardship: Supply and Public Policy
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 43
Open Chapter Ch. 11: Soil: The Foundation for Land Ecosystems
Lesson #44 Soil and Plants
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 44
Lesson #45 Soil Degradation
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 45
Lesson #46 Soil Conservation
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 46
Open Chapter Ch. 12: The Production and Distribution of Food
Lesson #47 Crops and Animals: Major Patterns of Food Production
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 47
Lesson #48 From Green Revolution to Gene Revolution
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 48
Lesson #49 Food Distribution and Trade
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 49
Lesson #50 Hunger, Malnutrition, and Famine
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 50
Lesson #51 The Future: Feeding the World as We Approach 2030-2050
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 51
Exam Midterm Exam
Open Chapter Ch. 13: Pests and Pest Control
Lesson #52 The Need for Pest Control
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 52
Lesson #53 Chemical Treatment: Promises and Problems
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 53
Lesson #54 Alternative Pest Control Methods
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 54
Lesson #55 Making a Coherent Plan
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 55
Lesson #56 Pests, Pesticides, and Policy
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 56
Open Chapter Ch. 14: Energy from Fossil Fuels
Lesson #57 Energy from Fossil Fuels
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 57
Lesson #58 Exploiting Crude Oil
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 58
Lesson #59 Drilling for Natural Gas
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 59
Lesson #60 Mining Coal
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 60
Lesson #61 Energy Policy
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 61
Open Chapter Ch. 15: Nuclear Power
Lesson #62 Nuclear Energy in Perspective
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 62
Lesson #63 How Nuclear Power Works
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 63
Lesson #64 The Hazards and Costs of Nuclear Power Facilities
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 64
Lesson #65 More Advanced Reactors
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 65
Lesson #66 The Future of Nuclear Power
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 66
Open Chapter Ch. 16: Renewable Energy
Lesson #67 Strategic Issues
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 67
Lesson #68 Putting Solar Energy to Work
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 68
Lesson #69 Indirect Solar Energy
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 69
Lesson #70 Renewable Energy for Transportation
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 70
Lesson #71 Additional Renewable Energy Options
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 71
Lesson #72 Policies for Renewable Energy
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 72
Open Chapter Ch. 17: Environmental Hazards and Human Health
Lesson #73 Links Between Human Health and the Environment
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 73
Lesson #74 Pathways of Risk
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 74
Lesson #75 Risk Assessment
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 75
Open Chapter Ch. 18: Global Climate Change
Lesson #76 Atmosphere, Weather, and Climate
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 76
Lesson #77 Climate Change Science
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 77
Lesson #78 Response to Climate Change
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 78
Exam Exam 3
Open Chapter Ch. 19: Atmospheric Pollution
Lesson #79 Air Pollution Essentials
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 79
Lesson #80 Major Air Pollutants and Their Sources
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 80
Lesson #81 Impacts of Air Pollutants
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 81
Lesson #82 Bringing Air Pollution Under Control
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 82
Lesson #83 Destruction of the Ozone Layer
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 83
Open Chapter Ch. 20: Water Pollution and Its Prevention
Lesson #84 Perspectives on Water Pollution
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 84
Lesson #85 Wastewater Treatment and Management
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 85
Lesson #86 Eutrophication
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 86
Lesson #87 Public Policy and Water Pollution
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 87
Open Chapter Ch. 21: Municipal Solid Waste: Disposal and Recovery
Lesson #88 Solid Waste: Landfills and Combustion
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 88
Lesson #89 Better Solutions: Source Reduction and Recycling
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 89
Lesson #90 Public Policy and Waste Management
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 90
Open Chapter Ch. 22: Hazardous Chemicals: Pollution and Prevention
Lesson #91 Toxicology and Chemical Hazards
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 91
Lesson #92 Hazardous Waste Disposal
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 92
Lesson #93 Cleaning Up the Mess
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 93
Lesson #94 Managing Current Toxic Chemicals and Waste
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 94
Lesson #95 Hazardous Chemicals: Pollution and Prevention
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 95
Open Chapter Ch. 23: Sustainable Communities and Lifestyles
Lesson #96 Urban Sprawl
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 96
Lesson #97 Urban Blight
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 97
Lesson #98 Moving Towards Sustainable Cities and Communities
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 98
Lesson #99 Lifestyles and the Common Good
Incomplete Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 99
Exam Final Exam

Assignments:

Unfinished Assignment Study Questions for Lesson 33

Lesson Objectives:

- Demographics
- Human revolutions
- Planetary boundaries



Demography is the field of collecting, compiling and presenting information about human populations.

Terms used in demography include:
- growth rate or the rate of growth of a population
- total fertility rate (the average number of children a woman has over her lifetime)
- replacement-level fertility (the fertility rate to replace a woman and her partner)
- infant mortality (the number of infant deaths per 1,000 live births)
- population profile (the bar graph showing numbers of males and females for successive ages in the population)
- population momentum (the effect of current age structure on future population growth)
- crude birthrate (the number of live births per 1,000 in the population in a given year)
- crude death rate (the number of deaths per 1,000 in the population in a given year)
- epidemiologic transition (the shift from high death rates to low death rates in a population)
- fertility transition (the decline of birth rates from high levels to low levels in a population)
- demographic transition (the tendency of a population to shift from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates)



Human beings have changed dramatically over the years in every aspect. There has been steady growth in every part of human life, often led by organized groups and new inventions or methods. The first known revolution is the Neolithic Revolution that happened 40,000 years ago. Human beings foraged for food and came together in groups to hunt and find food. About 12,000 years ago, the next major change happened with the Agricultural Revolution where human beings actively cultivated food. There was a division of labor and the growth of cities occurred. By the 17th century, two revolutions occurred - Industrial and Medical. The Industrial Revolution brought mechanization with tools and the birth of industries and mass production. It also began the heavy use of fossil fuels to supply energy for growing needs. The medical revolution brought vaccinations, water treatment and better nutrition. Prior to these medical breakthroughs, many human beings died of simple diseases and most people combated life on a daily basis as a simple flu could be deadly. After World War II, the Green Revolution occurred where farmers had access to better farming tools and methods. Both irrigation and fertilizer use increased crop yields dramatically.

Today, we are in the midst of an Environmental Revolution where we are learning how to use green technologies using faster computers and artificial intelligence to increase productivity, while taking care of our planet and our limited natural resources.



Human population is constantly growing. In prior centuries, natural disasters, disease and other factors limited population growth. It took until 1830 for the human population to reach 1 billion worldwide. Today however the population is growing so fast that it passed 7 billon by 2011. The UN estimates that world populations will surpass 8 billion in the next decade or less and be at 9 billion in 2045.

The Earth has finite natural resources that cannot sustain such large populations at any healthy level. In 2009, a team of 28 academic researchers led by Johan Rockstrom at the Stockholm Environmental Institute suggested a set of planetary boundaries for a safe operating space for humanity.

The scientists proposed a series of limits or tipping points that, if passed, would keep humanity from surviving.