Lesson Objectives:- Hispanic vs. Latino
- The history of immigration
- Unauthorized immigration
- The rights of illegal immigrants
- American Indians
The African American experience has not been the only case of discrimination in the United States. Latinos and Native Americans are worth mentioning since their cases are every bit as significant.
A Hispanic is someone who can claim heritage from a Spanish-speaking country. Hispanics may be of any race.
The term Latino is an alternative to the term Hispanic that is preferred by many people nowadays.
Historically, immigrants originally came to the United States from Europe, but more recently, the immigration population has been largely made up of Latinos and Asians.
That is not the only way the face of America is changing. There is another factor called the Total Fertility Rate. In order for a country to stabilize in population, there must be a ratio of about 2:1 and it takes a while. Latinos have a higher fertility rate than other groups in America.
The Department of Homeland Security uses the term Unauthorized Immigration rather than Illegal Immigration. It has become a major point of contention in the United States.
Many unauthorized immigrants come to America to work. At one time, there were not any laws against hiring someone who was not documented.
The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 sought to criminalize the act of hiring "illegal aliens," but the Obama Administration put protections in place to lessen deportation.
Latino participation in politics is on the rise. More Latinos are taking office despite the fact that a large part of the Latino community cannot vote because they do not have the necessary documentation.
In 1903, a standard was put in place by the Supreme Court for deportation proceedings. Illegal Immigrants have the right to face a judge, to be represented, and to examine the evidence against them.
However, there are limits to their rights. The Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996 allows the government to take certain liberties.
Due Process can be thrown out the window when it comes to terrorism. A noncitizen can be deported for alleged terrorism and secret evidence can be used that the deportee will not be given the chance to examine.
There are other rights that can be denied despite due process.
Freedom of Speech is not granted as noncitizens cannot use the First Amendment to argue against deportation.
Ex Post Facto Laws are not granted. If a noncitizen was convicted of aggravated felony before 1996, the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act mandated that they get deported. For something as simple as the possession of marijuana, a noncitizen could find themselves back in a country they left when they were a child.
American Indians were here first, but they have suffered at the hands of the people who came here to settle.
The early American Indian population was almost wiped out by disease. New diseases that the early settlers brought with them were a problem for the American Indians because they had no immunity to them.
While the European American and African American populations were growing steadily, the Indian American population was on the decline. It did bounce back and now it has stabilized.
Even though American Indian have experienced high poverty rates, gambling casinos have popped up as a strategy for economic development. Because reservations are under Federal regulations, they are not subject to the laws that govern the state.