Financial Accounting

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Previous Lessons
Open Chapter Ch. 1: Basics of Financial Accounting
Lesson #1 Introduction to Financial Accounting
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Lesson #2 Structures of a Business
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Lesson #3 Comparing Internal vs. External Users
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Lesson #4 Business Activities
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Lesson #5 Financial Statements
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Lesson #6 Elements of Financial Accounting
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Open Chapter Ch. 2: Assets, Liability, and Equity
Lesson #7 Assets
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Lesson #8 Liabilities
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Lesson #9 Equity
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Open Chapter Ch. 3: The Double-Entry System and Conceptual Framework
Lesson #10 Accounting Equation
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Lesson #11 Conceptual Framework
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Lesson #12 Double Entry Accounting System
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Lesson #13 Debits and Credits
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Lesson #14 Normal Balances and RED Accounts
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Exam Exam 1
Open Chapter Ch. 4: The Accounting Cycle
Lesson #15 Journalizing and the Accounting Cycle
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Lesson #16 Posting to the General Ledger
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Lesson #17 Trial Balance
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Lesson #18 Adjusting Entries for Accrued Expenses
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Lesson #19 Adjusting Entries for Prepaid Expenses
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Lesson #20 Adjusting Entries for Unearned Revenue
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Lesson #21 Adjusting Entries for Accrued Revenue
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Lesson #22 Adjusting Entries for Amortization and Depreciation
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Lesson #23 Adjusted Trial Balance
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Lesson #24 Preparing the Financial Statements
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Lesson #25 Permanent vs. Temporary Accounts
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Lesson #26 Closing Entries
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Open Chapter Ch. 5: Merchandise Inventory
Lesson #27 Introduction to Merchandise Inventory
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Lesson #28 Periodic vs. Perpetual Inventory Systems
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Lesson #29 Journalizing Purchase Entries
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Lesson #30 Journalizing Sales Transactions
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Lesson #31 Preparing a Multiple-Step Income Statement
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Lesson #32 Periodic Inventory System Purchases
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Lesson #33 Periodic System and the Multiple-Step Accounting System
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Exam Midterm Exam
Open Chapter Ch. 6: Cost Flow Assumptions: FIFO, LIFO, and Average Cost Methods
Lesson #34 Specific Identification Method and Inventory Costing
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Lesson #35 FIFO Method and Inventory Costing
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Lesson #36 Average Cost Method and Inventory Costing
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Lesson #37 The LIFO Method
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Lesson #38 Average Cost Method for the Perpetual System
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Lesson #39 Comparing Inventory Costing Methods
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Open Chapter Ch. 7: Receivables and Bad Debts
Lesson #40 Allowance Method and Uncollectibles
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Lesson #41 The Allowance Method
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Lesson #42 Percentage of Sales Method
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Lesson #43 Percentage of Receivables Method
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Lesson #44 Receivables Method and the Aging Table
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Lesson #45 Write Off Receivables Using the Allowance Method
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Lesson #46 Direct Write-Off Method
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Open Chapter Ch. 8: Revenue Recognition
Lesson #47 Revenue Recognition
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Lesson #48 Revenue Recognition Examples
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Lesson #49 Revenue Recognition and Long Term Contracts
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Lesson #50 Percentage of Completion Method
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Lesson #51 Percentage of Completion Method Journal Entries
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Lesson #52 Percentage of Completion Method and Journalizing Losses
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Lesson #53 Cost Recovery Method
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Lesson #54 Completed Contract Method and Journal Entries
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Lesson #55 Completed Contract Method and Losses
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Exam Exam 3
Open Chapter Ch. 9: Depreciation of Fixed Assets and Gains and Losses
Lesson #56 Depreciation, Amortization and Depletion
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Lesson #57 Straight Line and Declining Balance Methods
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Lesson #58 Straight Line and Double Declining Balance Depreciation Examples
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Lesson #59 Gains and Losses on Disposals of Property, Plant & Equipment
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Open Chapter Ch. 10: Intangible Assets
Lesson #60 Intangible Assets
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Lesson #61 Amortizing Intangible Assets
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Lesson #62 Impairment of Intangible Assets
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Lesson #63 Recording Goodwill, Amortization and Impairment
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Open Chapter Ch. 11: The Indirect Cash Flow Statement
Lesson #64 Preparing a Cash Flow Statement Using the Indirect Method Part 1
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Lesson #65 Cash Flow Statement Using Indirect Method Part 2, Receivables
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Lesson #66 Cash Flow Statement Using Indirect Method Part 3, Inventory
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Lesson #67 Cash Flow Statement Using Indirect Method Part 4, Payables
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Lesson #68 Cash Flow Statement Using Indirect Method Part 5, Non Cash Expenses
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Lesson #69 Cash Flow Statement- Investing and Financing Activities
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Exam Final Exam

Assignments:

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Lesson Objectives:

- Definition of permanent and temporary accounts
- Difference in the two types of accounts
- Examples of the account types and how they are recorded



Before we take a look at the final step in the accounting cycle of performing closing entries, you must understand the fundamental difference between permanent and temporary accounts. The most important rule related to this concept is the fact that in financial accounting, we will only close the account balances of temporary accounts.

Temporary does not mean the accounts themselves are getting removed, it simply means that the balances will be closed out in the final step of closing entries. Temporary accounts are often referred to as nominal accounts.
 
Permanent accounts retain their balances at the end of the year and are not used in closing entries. Permanent accounts are known as real accounts.
 
Now let's compare the different accounts that fall within each category and how they are recorded.



Temporary accounts are the accounts that show up on the income statement, with the exception of dividend accounts, which are shown on the retained earnings statements. Remember the temporary accounts by using RED acronym, which stands for revenues, expenses and dividend accounts, which are also referred to as owner's drawings account.

At the end of the accounting cycle, the balance of temporary accounts is transferred to a permanent account and reset to zero.
 
Permanent accounts involve the assets, liabilities and equity accounts. When you think of permanent accounts, think of the accounts that are listed on the balance sheet.
 
They are the polar opposite of temporary accounts as they are not reset to zero, the account balance is compounded each year. The reason for doing this is to be able to track the RED account balances for each year instead of the years cumulatively.



The graphic above gives you a side by side comparison of the account types and how they are recorded.



Let's take a look at a few real world examples of temporary and permanent accounts.

For the first type of temporary account, an example would be if a company earns $30,000 revenue at the beginning of the year. At the end of the year, the revenue account value of $30,000 is transferred to retained earnings. The next year we would start rerecording the revenue values before they are closed out for the end of the accounting period.
 
An example of a permanent account would be when the property assets are equated to $5 million at the end of the year. This figure would carry over to the beginning of the next year, instead of being zeroed out and transferred to a closing balance. Say the company purchases another $1 million worth of property in the second year; the new balance of $6 million would then carry over into the next year.
 
Now that you have a basic understanding of the two types of accounts, let's move onto the next lesson on how to prepare closing entries.